Below is a table outlining the difference between the Zika virus and other mosquito borne diseases like Malaria, Dengue fever and Chikungunya. Source is Health Department’s Emergency and Surveillance manager and Epidemiologist Berry Ropa.

Disease Malaria Zika Dengue Chikungunya
Cause Parasite Virus Virus Virus
Vector Anopheles mosquitoes(night biting) Aedes mosquitoes (day biting) Aedes mosquitoes (day biting) Aedes mosquitoes (day biting)
Common Symptoms and Signs
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Chills
  • Sweating
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Anaemia

 

  • Fever (often less than 38.0C)
  • Skin rash
  • Headache
  • Arthralgia
  • Myalgia
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind eyes
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Arthralgia
  • Myalgia
  • Rash
  • Fever
  • Severe arthralgia
  • Nausea/Vomiting
Potential Complications (Common)
  • Anemia
  • Cerebral malaria
  • Microcephaly
  • Guillain-Barré Syndrome
  • Shock
  • Bleeding
  • Chronic Arthralgia
Main Treatment Anti-malarials Symptomatic treatment Symptomatic treatment (fluid resuscitation for severe dengue – see dengue treatment protocols) Symptomatic treatment
Prevention Avoidance of mosquito bites; Elimination of mosquito breeding sites Avoidance of mosquito bites; Elimination of mosquito breeding sites Avoidance of mosquito bites; Elimination of mosquito breeding sites Avoidance of mosquito bites; Elimination of mosquito breeding sites
Reporting Case Definition Acute fever, and positive RDT or malaria microscopy Fever and rash, with at least ONE of the following symptoms (not explained by any other medical condition):

  • Arthralgia
  • Myalgia
  • Non-purulent conjunctivitis
  • Headache
  • Malaise

 

Fever and at least TWO of the following symptoms:

  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind eyes
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea/Vomiting
  • Arthralgia
  • Myalgia
  • Rash
  • Leukopenia
  • Bleeding
Acute fever and arthralgia, not explained by another medical condition
Diagnosis Malaria RDT or microscopy
Sample referral referred to Institute of Medical Research
Author:
Sally Pokiton

 

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